Electric self-driving vehicles in the future decarbonised transport system
The purpose of the project is to create an increased understanding of how electric, shared and self-driving vehicles can affect and supplement public transport, but also how the transport system is broadly affected from a sustainability perspective. The upcoming new vehicle concepts will be automated, shared and probably also electrified. Applied correctly, these vehicle concepts will contribute to a sustainable transport system.
The Gothenburg Urban Transport Administration, Västtrafik, K2/Malmö University and Trivector put together a strong interdisciplinary consortium for the study to explore the potential of electric, shared and self-driving vehicles in the Gothenburg region, but results from the project can be used in a larger context. The project developed possible future scenarios which were then modeled in the City of Gothenburg's multimodal VISUM platform, which was supplemented with a MaaS module (Mobility as a Service) from the company PTV and formed the starting point for the work.
From the scenarios, results were obtained in the form of how traffic is affected and parameters such as travel times, congestion and CO2 emissions could be calculated. Through scenario runs and interdisciplinary analyzes, better knowledge is obtained for the public actors about how modern vehicle concepts affect/complement but also how they can be used in the public transport and general transport system to promote sustainable development. The project was run in parallel with a project financed by Västra Götaland Region where the same partners were included. The parallel project focused on the user perspective and customer experience of electric, shared and self-driving vehicles. The projects were independent, but synergy effects were achieved by running them in parallel.
Based on simulations of the effects of the transfer of car traffic and public transport to shared, self-driving services, the following conclusions can be drawn:
- The transition to Car sharing provides 25–30 percent higher traffic work than the transition to Ride sharing, regardless of which type of traffic the transition was made from.
- When transferring from car traffic to Ride sharing, the traffic work decreases by up to 5–6 percent, but when transferring from car to Car sharing, the traffic work increases by up to 15 percent.
- Transfer from today's public transport together with transfer from car traffic to both Ride sharing and Car sharing provides increased traffic work.
- The transfer from today's car traffic to Ride sharing and Car sharing leads to a reduction in the number of vehicles by up to four-fifths, which has a major impact on the need for parking spaces and reduced the need to purchase new vehicles.
Based on the user dialogues held on transfer and attractiveness of services, the following conclusions can be drawn:
- Those who mainly use a car will be difficult to move to shared self-driving vehicles and in that case it will be to Car sharing. Ride sharing is farther away for those who mainly drive today.
- Many people who mainly travel by public transport today see Ride sharing as an attractive service, which means that part of public transport travel will probably be transferred to Ride sharing. This points to a future with a mixture of Ride sharing and Car sharing where Ride sharing mainly takes travelers from public transport and Car sharing mainly take travelers by car, but where private motoring also remains.
The final report indicates that the design of services for shared self-driving vehicles will have a major impact on the city in general and the traffic situation in particular. It is therefore important that public actors become aware of the opportunities that exist to influence these services in order to minimize a future negative impact on the city, for example in the form of a large increase in traffic. Planning, legislation and regulations therefore need to relate to a number of factors regarding services for shared self-driving vehicles. In the final report, you will find recommendations based on the results of the study.
This project is concluded, read the final report here (in Swedish)